Iodine (medical use)
Iodine is taken by mouthto prevent and treat iodine deficiency and its consequences, including goiter and some thyroid disorders. It is also used for treating lumpy breasts(fibrocystic breast. Iodine plays a key role in thyroid health. As a treatment, iodine helps with goiters (enlargements of the thyroid gland) and high thyroid levels such as in thyroid storm. After exposure to.
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Select personalised ads. Apply market research to generate audience insights. Measure content performance. Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. Iodine is an essential mineral, which means that your body needs it to function properly and you cannot produce it on your own—you must ingest it through your diet or as a supplement.
It is present in foods, but amounts can be hard to identify. Most people need to regularly use salt that is enriched with iodine in order to get an ample dietary dose. Iodized salt is the main source of this mineral in the United States. Iodine deficiency results in low thyroid hormone levels, which can result in hypothyroidism. This is an uncommon problem, but it can occur in infants and very young children. Dietary iodine deficiency is among the leading preventable causes of cognitive and developmental disabilities in many parts of the world.
Your thyroid gland makes the thyroid hormones thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3both of which contain iodide a form of iodine. Iodine is consumed by mouth and is quickly absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. It travels through the bloodstream and from here, iodine receptors located in the thyroid bind to it and take it in. T4, which contains four molecules of iodide, is an inactive precursor of the active T3 thyroid hormone, which contains three molecules of iodide.
This means that after the thyroid gland produces T4 and releases it into the bloodstream, it is then converted to T3, which interacts with most cells of the body.
The active T3 thyroid hormone functions in virtually every cell and organ in the body by regulating metabolism, energy use, growth, and repair. The most noticeable consequences of iodine deficiency involve defects in thyroid hormone production, which results in symptoms of thyroid disease. If you have low iodine levels, the symptoms of thyroid dysfunction can develop within a few weeks and include a variety of conditions:.
Inadequate iodine prevents your body from making enough thyroid hormones. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including weight gain, diminished energy, sleepiness, trouble concentrating, depression, constipation, feeling cold all the time, menstrual irregularities, and problems with blood sugar.
Children who are deficient in iodine may experience the same effects as adults, as well as experience additional symptoms. The effects can be subtle and gradual including slow physical growth, mood problems, trouble concentrating, and learning difficulties. When an iodine deficiency results in low thyroid hormone levels, your pituitary gland makes excess thyroid stimulating hormone TSH to compensate for the low thyroid hormone levels.
TSH normally stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release T4 and T3. Excess TSH overstimulates the thyroid gland. In response to this, the thyroid gland becomes enlarged, yet still cannot function adequately in the absence of sufficient iodine. This change is described as goiter. The condition may cause babies to experience trouble eating, weak muscle tone, or heart problems—sometimes, it may not cause any symptoms at all.
While there are other causes, newborn babies born to mothers who had low iodine intake during pregnancy can develop congenital hypothyroidism. If they don't, they are at risk for developing learning deficits and limits in physical growth as a result of inadequate thyroid function. It has been suggested that iodine deficiency may also be associated with breast disease, stomach problems, and bone problems, but these concerns have not been verified.
In some situations, your iodine might not how to setup xbox live wired connection the way it should if goitrogens interfere with iodine absorption in the thyroid gland. Goitrogens are foods and other substances that compete with iodine uptake in your thyroid gland, ultimately preventing proper production of thyroid hormones.
Some goitrogens include broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and strawberries. In general, moderate iodine consumption through the intake of iodized salt or through the food in your diet should not be problematic because extra iodine is easily eliminated through the urine.
However, you can consume more iodine than your body can handle by using supplements that contain high doses of iodine. Chronic iodine overdose has been associated with goiter, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer. In rare instances, iodine how to train a german shepherd puppy to stop biting can occur as a result of consuming heavy doses of iodine supplements. Children who eat a whole bottle of vitamin pills or adults with kidney failure who use supplements may not be able to properly eliminate excess iodine.
Symptoms can include stomach upset, vomiting, and diarrhea. Allergies and sensitivities to iodine have been reported. There are three types of iodine reactions: skin sensitivity, an how to get eyeliner off to ingested iodine, and an allergy to injected iodine.
Iodine is added to table salt, which is labeled as "iodized salt. Pregnant women need higher amounts to support the developing baby. The United States Institute of Medicine produced a recommendation for the amount of iodine a person should ingest on a daily basis. Iodine levels are not measured in the blood, but they can be measured in the urine.
Urine measures of iodine are considered a reflection of iodine intake. Normal urinary iodine concentrations range between and micrograms per liter. Values lower than 20 micrograms per liter are suggestive of inadequate iodine intake.
Common sources of iodine include:. As a medical treatment, radioactive iodine is used for several purposes, including for treatment of thyroid cancer or goiter. Radioactive iodine is often used to destroy overactive thyroid tissue or thyroid cancer. This treatment comes as a prescription pill and requires preparation with a special low iodine diet several weeks before starting treatment. Radioactive iodine can be harmful to others, and there are precautions that you would need to take to protect other people, including covering your neck for the duration of your treatment.
Over-the-counter and prescription forms of iodine solution are often used to prevent infections. The mineral is often added to topical antiseptics and is believed to destroy infectious microorganisms with minimal risk of side effects. Iodine is also used for pre-surgical care. It is a component of povidone-iodine, which is one of the preparations used for surgical procedures to prevent infections.
In rare instances, a nuclear emergency associated with a radioactive iodine leak can pose serious health threats to the public. In these instances, potassium iodide can be used to prevent thyroid gland damage. Because salt is enriched with iodine and is naturally found in some foods, it is not recommended to use iodine supplements unless you have a deficiency that is diagnosed by your doctor.
In fact, with a thyroid disorder, a low iodine diet is often recommended. If you have to follow a very low salt diet due to other health issues, you may need iodine supplementation. If you need iodine supplements, your doctor will give you a prescription. You might be able to use an over-the-counter supplement, and if so, be sure to verify that the dose is exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Iodine deficiency can affect your thyroid hormone levels, what vitamins are in ensure low energy.
However, iodine deficiency does not affect energy levels independently of thyroid hormones. You can have your thyroid levels checked if you have low energy or other symptoms of thyroid disease. If you have a tendency to eat salty foods, your body will eliminate the excess iodine.
Food alone should not cause toxicity—consuming excess supplements, however, is not safe. Iodine deficiency is rare in countries where iodized salt is regularly used. If you have a thyroid problem, you may have been instructed to maintain a low iodine diet or to supplement your diet with iodine.
If you have had an iodine deficiency in the past, regular monitoring of your thyroid hormone levels is considered the best way to know whether you are getting enough iodine. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. American Thyroid Association. Iodine Deficiency. The iodine deficiency disorders.
Updated February 6, Ahad F, Ganie SA. Iodine, Iodine metabolism and Iodine deficiency disorders revisited. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. Kostoglou-athanassiou I, Ntalles K. Hypothyroidism - new aspects of an old disease. Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents. Updated July 9, National Library of Medicine. Congenital hypothyroidism. Updated February 11, Johnson LE. Merck Manual Professional Version.
Liquid iodine is also utilized in modern colposcopies, a procedure that examines the interior of a woman's vagina to detect precancerous tumors and lesions. Liquid iodine is applied to the vulva, cervix and vaginal tissue. The vaginal tissues are high in glycogens and produce a color reaction similar to starches after iodine application.
Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Dec 8, Topical iodine is used to prevent and treat infections that may occur in minor scrapes and cuts. It works by killing bacteria that can cause infections. In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For iodine, the following should be considered:.
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to iodine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Use of topical iodine is not recommended for newborn infants because it may cause skin and thyroid problems. Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people.
Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is no specific information comparing use of topical iodine in the elderly with use in other age groups, iodine is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults. Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur.
In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription over-the-counter [OTC] medicine. Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur.
Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco. The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of iodine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:. Keep iodine away from the eyes because it may cause irritation. If you should accidentally get some in your eyes, wash it away with water immediately.
Do not use topical iodine on deep, puncture wounds, animal bites, or serious burns. To do so may increase the chance of side effects.
Do not cover the wound to which you have applied topical iodine with a tight dressing or bandage since this may increase the chance of side effects. The dose of iodine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of iodine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine.
Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine. To help clear up your infection completely, it is very important that you keep using topical iodine for the full time of treatment.
Do not miss any doses. If you miss a dose of iodine, apply it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing. Check with your doctor if the skin problem for which you are using topical iodine becomes worse, or if you develop a constant irritation such as itching or burning that was not present before you started using iodine.
Iodine can stain your skin and clothing. Alcohol may be used to remove iodine stain on the skin. Stains on clothing can be removed by washing and rinsing them in ammonia diluted with water. Stains on starched linens can be removed by washing them in soap and water. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.
Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Betadine , povidone iodine topical , silver nitrate topical , Dakins Full Strength Solution , ethanol topical. Iodine Topical. Iodine topical side effects more detail. Pregnancy Category Positive evidence of risk D.