A Complete Guide to Diuretics
Feb 28, · Types of diuretics Thiazide diuretics. Thiazides are the most commonly prescribed diuretics. They’re most often used to treat high blood Loop diuretics. Loop diuretics are often used to treat heart failure. Potassium-sparing diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics reduce fluid levels in Author: Mary Ellen Ellis. Thiazide diuretics are used to treat high blood pressure by reducing the amount of sodium and water in the body. Thiazides are the only type of diuretic that dilates (widens) the blood vessels, which also helps to lower blood pressure. 2. Potassium-sparing diuretics are used to reduce the amount of water in the body.
Diuretics, also called water pills, are a common treatment for high blood pressure. Find out how they work and when you might need them. Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, help rid your body of salt sodium and water. Most of them help your kidneys release more sodium into your urine. The sodium takes with it water from your blood, decreasing the amount of fluid flowing through your veins and arteries.
This reduces blood pressure. Each type affects a different part of your kidneys. Some pills combine more than one type of diuretic or combine a diuretic with another blood pressure medication. If diuretics aren't enough to lower your blood pressure, your doctor might add other blood pressure medications to your treatment plan.
Diuretics can also affect blood potassium levels. If you take a thiazide diuretic, your potassium level can drop too low hypokalemiawhich can cause life-threatening problems with your heartbeat.
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Free E-newsletter Subscribe to Housecall Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics. Sign up now. Diuretics Diuretics, also called water pills, are a common treatment for high blood pressure. By Mayo Clinic Staff. Show references Types of blood pressure medications. American Heart Association. Accessed June 25, Mann JFE. Choice of drug how to play the stick game in primary essential hypertension.
Cifu AS, et al. Prevention, detection, evaluation and management of high blood pressure in adults. Brater DC, et al. Mechanism of action of diuretics. Drug record: Diuretics. National Institutes of Health. Reboussin DM, et al. Aronson JK. In: Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; Accessed June 26, Whelton PK, et al. See also Medication-free hypertension control 6 surprising signs you may have obstructive sleep apnea After a flood, are food and medicines safe to use?
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Sep 25, · Diuretics, commonly called "water pills," are the oldest and some of the least expensive class of drugs used to treat high blood pressure. They help the kidneys eliminate sodium and water from the body. This process decreases blood volume, so the heart has less to pump with each beat, which in turn lowers blood pressure. May 15, · Urination is the body’s way of removing excess salt and water. Not only does this relieve symptoms such as ankle swelling, it also helps to lower blood pressure. There are several different classes of diuretics, including carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and thiazide diuretics. Even though merely increasing your urine volume and fiddling with your electrolyte levels may sound benign, when taken improperly, diuretics can cause dehydration and potentially lethal electrolyte imbalance (mess with your body salts). Diuretics can also exacerbate cirrhosis, heart failure, or renal failure.
Medically reviewed by C. Fookes, BPharm. Last updated on May 15, Diuretics also called water pills or fluid pills are medicines that increase the amount of urine you produce.
Not only does this relieve symptoms such as ankle swelling , it also helps to lower blood pressure. There are several different classes of diuretics, including carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and thiazide diuretics.
Each type works in a distinct way and in different parts of the kidney cell called a nephron. Diuretics are used to treat conditions that have fluid retention also called edema as a symptom, such as heart failure , kidney failure and cirrhosis of the liver. They are also effective at reducing blood pressure and some such as thiazides and loop diuretics are used in the treatment of high blood pressure hypertension.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are mainly used in the treatment of glaucoma and are sometimes used off-label for altitude sickness. Each class of diuretic works in a different way to remove salt and water from the kidney, which means they have different potencies and different side effects.
Below, we have grouped the most common diuretics into their respective classes. This decreases the amount of sodium reabsorbed back into the body, which results in more fluid being passed as urine. Thiazides are relatively weak diuretics. They are potent diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics interfere with the sodium-potassium exchange in the distal convoluted tubule of a kidney cell.
Some block the aldosterone receptor. Aldosterone is a hormone that promotes the retention of sodium and water. They are relatively weak diuretics; however, they do not cause hypokalemia low potassium levels but may cause hyperkalemia high potassium levels , especially if they are used with other agents that also retain potassium, such as ACE inhibitors.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act by increasing the amount of bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and water excreted from the kidney. They are relatively weak diuretics. They also reduce fluid levels in the eye and may be used to treat glaucoma and are sometimes used off-label to treat altitude sickness. When taken at the recommended dosage, diuretics are considered safe.
However, they have been associated with several serious adverse effects including:. Side effects vary depending on the type of diuretic taken: however, the more common side effects of diuretics include:. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. More drug approvals. Diuretics Medically reviewed by C. What are Diuretics? What are diuretics used for? What are the differences between diuretics? Generic name Brand name examples bendroflumethiazide Only available in the U.
Generic name Brand name examples ethacrynic acid Edecrin , Sodium Edecrin bumetanide Bumex furosemide Lasix torsemide Demadex Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Potassium-sparing diuretics interfere with the sodium-potassium exchange in the distal convoluted tubule of a kidney cell.
Generic name Brand name examples amiloride Midamor eplerenone Inspra spironolactone Aldactone , CaroSpir triamterene Dyrenium Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act by increasing the amount of bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and water excreted from the kidney.
Generic name Brand name examples acetazolamide Diamox Are diuretics safe? However, they have been associated with several serious adverse effects including: Stevens-Johnson syndrome , erythema multiforme and other severe reactions in people with a sulphonamide allergy who have taken a sulphonamide-containing diuretic includes acetazolamide, thiazides, or loop diuretics Severe neurological changes have occurred in people with liver disease given loop diuretics who are already electrolyte depleted Tinnitus or hearing impairment have been reported with loop diuretics, mainly after intravenous administration, or in people with kidney disease, low protein levels, or administered another medicine that may also affect hearing Excessive urination can occur which may cause dehydration with the potential for adverse cardiovascular events such as a stroke or blood clots.
What are the side effects of diuretics? Side effects vary depending on the type of diuretic taken: however, the more common side effects of diuretics include: Changes in electrolyte levels such as potassium, sodium, calcium or magnesium levels , depending on the type of diuretic Constipation Dizziness Dry mouth Gout A headache An increase in blood sugar levels Muscle cramps Stomach upset Tiredness.
For a complete list of side effects, please refer to the individual drug monographs. Types of Diuretics Please refer to the drug classes listed below for further information. Recently Approved. Jemperli Jemperli dostarlimab-gxly is a programmed death receptor-1 PD-1 —blocking a Nextstellis Nextstellis drospirenone and estetrol is a progestin and estrogen combination Qelbree Qelbree viloxazine hydrochloride is a serotonin norepinephrine modulating Subscribe to our newsletters.