Book of Psalms
1 A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son Absalom. 1 O LORD, how my foes have increased! How many rise up against me! 2 Many say of me, “God will not deliver him.” Selah a. 3 But You, O LORD, are a shield around me, my glory, and the One who lifts my head. 4 To the LORD I cry aloud, and He answers me from His holy mountain. Selah 5 I lie down and sleep;. Psalms, book of the Old Testament composed of sacred songs, or of sacred poems meant to be sung. In the Hebrew Bible, Psalms begins the third and last section of the biblical canon, known as the Writings. The psalms have also had a profound effect on the development of Christian worship.
Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. We'll send you an email with steps on how how to make potbelly hot peppers reset your password. This summary of the book of Psalms provides information about the title, author sdate of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Book of Psalms.
The titles "Psalms" and "Psalter" come from the Septuagint the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OTwhere they originally referred to stringed whats a good paying job without a degree such as harp, lyre and lutethen to songs sung with their accompaniment.
The traditional What is a link exchange title is tehillim meaning "praises"; see note on Ps titleeven though many of the psalms are tephillot meaning "prayers". In fact, one of the first collections included in the book was titled "the prayers of David son of Jesse" The Psalter is a collection of collections and represents the final stage in a process that spanned centuries.
It was put into its final form by postexilic temple personnel, who completed it probably in the third century b. As such, it has often been called the prayer book of the "second" Zerubbabel's and Herod's temple and was used in the synagogues as well. But it is more than a treasury of prayers and hymns for liturgical and private use on chosen occasions. Both the scope of its subject matter and the arrangement of the whole collection strongly suggest that this collection was viewed by its final editors as a book of instruction in the faith and in full-orbed godliness -- thus a guide for the life of faith in accordance with the Law, the Prophets and the canonical wisdom literature.
By the first century a. At that time Psalms appears also to have been used as a title for the entire section of the Hebrew OT canon more commonly known as the "Writings" see Lk and note. Many collections preceded this final compilation of the Psalms. In fact, the formation of thf probably goes back to the early days of the first Solomon's temple or even to the time of Davidwhen the temple liturgy began to take shape.
Reference has already been made to "the prayers of David. Other evidence points to further compilations. The reason for the Elohim collection in distinction from the Yahweh collection remains a matter of speculation. Moreover, Ps appear to be a traditional collection see "The Lord reigns" in ; ; ; Other apparent groupings include Ps a series of Hallelujah psalms; see introduction to PsPs all of which include "of David" in their titles and Ps with their frequent "Praise the Lord"; see NIV text note on Whether how to become a behavioral health technician in arizona "Great Hallel" Ps was already a recognized unit is not known.
In its final edition, the Psalter contained psalms. On this the Septuagint the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT and Hebrew texts agree, though they arrive at this number differently. The Septuagint has an extra psalm at the whar but not numbered separately as Ps ; it also unites Ps see NIV text note on Ps 9 and Ps and divides Ps and Ps each into two psalms.
Strangely, both the Septuagint and Hebrew texts number Ps as two psalms whereas they were evidently originally one see NIV text note on Ps In its final form the Psalter was divided into five Books Ps ; ; ; ;each of which was provided with a concluding doxology see ; ; ; ; The first two of these Books, as already noted, were probably preexilic.
The division of the remaining psalms into three Books, thus attaining the number five, was possibly in imitation of the five books of Moses otherwise known simply as the Law. At least one of these divisions between Ps what the u.
s. imports arbitrary see introduction to Ps In spite of this five-book division, the Psalter was whaf thought of as a whole, with an introduction Ps and a conclusion Ps Notes throughout the Psalms give additional indications of conscious arrangement see also chart, p. Of the psalms, only 34 lack superscriptions of any kind only 17 in the Septuagint, the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT.
These so-called "orphan" psalms are found mainly in Books III-V, where they tend bibl occur in clusters: Ps 91 ; ; 99 ; ; ; ; In Books I-II, only Ps ; 10 ; 33 ; 43 ; 71 lack titles, and Ps 10 and 43 are psalns continuations of the preceding psalms. Thr contents of the superscriptions vary but fall into a few broad categories: 1 author, 2 name of collection, 3 type of psalm, 4 musical notations, 5 liturgical notations whay 6 brief indications of occasion for composition.
For details see notes on the titles of the various psalms. Students of the Psalms are not agreed on the antiquity and reliability of these superscriptions. That many of them are at least preexilic appears evident from the fact that the Septuagint translators were sometimes unclear as to their meaning. Furthermore, the practice of attaching titles, including the name of the author, is vpn on iphone what is it. On the other hand, comparison between the Septuagint and the Hebrew texts shows that the content of some titles was still subject to change well into the postexilic period.
Most discussion centers on categories 1 and psalmms above. As for the superscriptions regarding occasion of composition, many of these brief notations of events read as if they had been taken from 1,2 Samuel. Moreover, they are sometimes not easily correlated psalns the content of the psalms they head. The suspicion therefore arises that they are later attempts to fit the psalms into the real-life events of history. But then why the limited number of such notations, and why the apparent mismatches?
The arguments cut both ways. Regarding authorship, opinions are even more divided. The notations themselves are ambiguous since the Hebrew phraseology used, meaning in general "belonging to," can also be taken in the sense of "concerning" or "for the use of" or "dedicated to.
To complicate matters, there is iin within the Psalter that at least some of the psalms were subjected to editorial revision in the course of their transmission. As for Aee authorship, there can be little doubt that the Psalter contains psalms composed by that noted singer and musician and that there was at one time a "Davidic" psalter. This, however, may have also included psalms written concerning David, or concerning one of the later Davidic kings, or even psalms written in the manner of those he authored.
Palms is also true that the tradition as to which psalms are "Davidic" remains somewhat indefinite, and some "Davidic" psalms seem clearly to reflect later situations see, e. Moreover, "David" is sometimes used elsewhere as a collective for the kings of his dynasty, and this could also be true in the psalm titles. It is also found in Hab 3a psalm-like poem. Suggestions as to its meaning abound, but honesty must confess whaf. Most likely, it is a liturgical notation. The common suggestions that it calls for a brief musical interlude or for a brief liturgical response by the congregation are plausible but unproven the former may be supported by the Septuagint rendering.
In some instances its present placement in the Hebrew text is highly questionable. Hebrew superscriptions to the Psalms acquaint us with an ancient system of classification: 1 mizmor "psalm" ; 2 shiggaion see note on Ps 7 title ; 3 miktam see note on Ps 16 title ; 4 shir "song" ; 5 masvkil see note on Ps 32 title ; 6 tephillah "prayer" ; 7 tehillah "praise" ; 8 lehazkir "for being remembered" -- i.
The meaning of many of these terms, however, is uncertain. In addition, some titles contain two of these especially mizmor and shirindicating that the types are diversely based and overlapping. Analysis of content has given rise to a different classification that has proven useful for study of the Psalms. The main types that can be identified are: 1 prayers of the individual e.
This classification also involves some overlapping. For boble, "prayers of the individual" may include prayers of the king in his special capacity as king or even prayers of the community speaking in the collective first person singular.
Nevertheless, it is helpful to study a psalm what is the french and indian war about conjunction with others of the same type. Attempts to fix specific liturgical settings for each type have not been very convincing. For those psalms about which something can be said in this regard see introductions to the individual psalms.
Of all these psalm types, the prayers both of the individual and of the community are the most complex. Several speech functions are combined to form these appeals to God: 1 address to God: "O Lord," "my God," "my deliverer"; 2 initial appeal: "Arise," "Answer me," "Help," "Save me"; 3 description of distress: "Many are rising against me," "The wicked attack," "I am in distress"; 4 complaint against God: "Why have you forsaken me?
Though not all these appear in every prayer, they all belong to the conventions of prayer in the Psalter, with petition itself being but one usually brief element among the rest. When beset by wicked adversaries, the petitioners appeal to God for a hearing, describe their situation, plead their innocence "righteousness"lodge their accusations against their adversaries, and appeal for deliverance and judicial thee.
When suffering at the hands of God when God is their adversarythey confess their guilt and plead for bile. Attention to these various speech functions and their role in the psalmists' judicial appeals to the heavenly Judge will significantly aid the reader's understanding of these psalms.
It should be noted that reference to "penitential" and "imprecatory" psalms as distinct psalm "types" has no basis in the Psalter collection itself. The former "penitential" refers to an early Christian selection of seven psalms 6 ; 32 ; 38 ; 51 ; ; ; for liturgical expressions of penitence; the latter "imprecatory" is based on a misconstrual of one of the speech functions found in bbible prayers.
What are actually appeals to the heavenly Judge for judicial redress function 8 noted above are taken to be curses "imprecation" means "curse" pronounced by the psalmists on their adversaries.
See note on The Psalter is from first to last poetry, even though it contains many prayers and not all OT prayers were poetic see 1Ki ; Ezr ; Ne ; Da -- nor, for that matter, was all praise poetic see 1Ki The Psalms are impassioned, vivid and concrete; they are rich in images, in simile and metaphor.
Assonance, alliteration and wordplays abound in the Hebrew text. Effective use of repetition and the piling up of synonyms and complements to fill out the picture are characteristic. Key words frequently highlight major themes in prayer or song. How to stop being shy in high school repetition of a significant word or phrase at the end that occurs at the beginning frequently wraps up a composition or a unit within it.
The notes on the structure of the individual psalms often call attention to literary frames within which the psalm has been set. Hebrew poetry lacks rhyme psals regular meter. Its most distinctive and pervasive feature is parallelism. Most poetic lines are composed of two sometimes three balanced segments the balance is often loose, with the second segment commonly somewhat shorter than the first.
The second segment either echoes synonymous parallelismcontrasts antithetic parallelism or syntactically completes synthetic parallelism the first. These three types are generalizations and what are the psalms in the bible not wholly adequate to describe the rich variety that the creativity of the poets has achieved within the basic two-segment line structure.
When the second or third segment of a icaew what does it stand for line repeats, echoes or overlaps the content of the preceding segment, it usually intensifies or more sharply focuses the thought or its expression.
They can serve, however, as rough distinctions that will assist the reader. In the NIV the second and third segments of a line psal,s slightly ghe relative to the first. Determining where the Hebrew poetic lines or line segments begin or end scanning is sometimes an uncertain matter. Even the Septuagint the pre-Christian Greek psalns of the OT at times scans the lines differently from the way the Hebrew texts now available to us do.
It is therefore not surprising that modern translations occasionally differ. A related problem is the extremely concise, often elliptical writing style of the Hebrew poets. The syntactical connection of words must at times be inferred simply from context. Where more how to check for memory loss one possibility presents itself, translators are confronted with ambiguity.
THE BOOK OF PSALMS The Hebrew Psalter numbers songs. The corresponding number in the Septuagint differs because of a different division of certain Psalms. Hence the numbering in the Greek Psalter (which was followed by the Latin Vulgate) is usually one digit behind the Hebrew. In the New American Bible the numbering of the verses follows the Hebrew numbering; many of the traditional. May 27, · The various titles of the Book of Psalms are one indication of the role of the book as a hymnal. In the Hebrew Bible the title of the Psalms is Tehillim, which means “songs of praise.” 30 In the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, the term Psalmoi is employed. Feb 25, · The word "psalm" comes from the Greek psalmoi, meaning "songs." This book is also called the Psalter. Originally, these poems were meant to be sung and were used in ancient Jewish worship services, accompanied by lyres, flutes, horns, and cymbals. King David established a 4, piece orchestra to play during worship (1 Chronicles ).
For they are like chaff driven off by the wind. Blessed are all who take refuge in Him. How many rise up against me! Save me, O my God!
Strike all my enemies on the jaw; break the teeth of the wicked. Answer Me When I Call! With stringed instruments. A Psalm of David. You have relieved my distress; show me grace and hear my prayer. How long will you love vanity and seek after lies a? Give Ear to My Words 1 For the choirmaster, to be accompanied by flutes.
Their throats are open graves; their tongues practice deceit. Drive them out for their many transgressions, for they have rebelled against You. May You shelter them, that those who love Your name may rejoice in You. With stringed instruments, according to Sheminith. Awake, my God, and ordain judgment. How Majestic Is Your Name! According to Gittith. You have set Your glory above the heavens.
Lift me up from the gates of death, 14 that I may declare all Your praises— that within the gates of Daughter Zion I may rejoice in Your salvation. Higgaion Selah b 17 The wicked will return to Sheol— all the nations who forget God.
Why do You hide in times of trouble? Lift up Your hand, O God! Do not forget the helpless. The victim entrusts himself to You; You are the helper of the fatherless. You will incline Your ear, 18 to vindicate the fatherless and oppressed, that the men of the earth may strike terror no more. Of David. They set their arrow on the string to shoot from the shadows at the upright in heart. His eyes are watching closely; they examine the sons of men. The upright will see His face. According to Sheminith.
We own our lips—who can be our master? Will You forget me forever? How long will You hide Your face from me? How long will my enemy dominate me? There is no one who does good. They devour my people like bread; they refuse to call upon the LORD. Who may dwell on Your holy mountain? He who does these things will never be shaken.
I will not pour out their libations of blood, or speak their names with my lips. Because He is at my right hand, I will not be shaken. Give ear to my prayer— it comes from lips free of deceit. You have tested me and found no evil; I have resolved not to sin with my mouth.
Incline Your ear to me; hear my words. Bring them to their knees; deliver me from the wicked by Your sword, 14 from such men, O LORD, by Your hand— from men of the world whose portion is in this life. May You fill the bellies of Your treasured ones b and satisfy their sons, so they leave their abundance to their children.
My God is my rock, in whom I take refuge, my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold. From His temple He heard my voice, and my cry for His help reached His ears. He is a shield to all who take refuge in Him. And who is the Rock except our God? And may the God of my salvation be exalted— 47 the God who avenges me and subdues nations beneath me, 48 who delivers me from my enemies. You exalt me above my foes; You rescue me from violent men.
He shows loving devotion to His anointed, to David and his descendants forever. Cleanse me from my hidden faults. Then I will be blameless and cleansed of great transgression.
The Day of Trouble 1 For the choirmaster. Selah 4 May He give you the desires of your heart and make all your plans succeed. May the LORD grant all your petitions. Answer us on the day we call. How greatly he exults in Your salvation! Selah 3 For You welcomed him with rich blessings; You placed on his head a crown of pure gold.
My heart is like wax; it melts away within me. You lay me in the dust of death. All descendants of Jacob, honor Him! All offspring of Israel, revere Him! He has not hidden His face from him, but has attended to his cry for help.
May your hearts live forever! All the families of the nations will bow down before Him. You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Who may stand in His holy place? Be lifted up, O ancient doors, that the King of Glory may enter! Do not let me be put to shame; do not let my enemies exult over me. He will instruct him in the path chosen for him. You have been my helper; do not leave me or forsake me, O God of my salvation.
Wait patiently for the LORD! For if You remain silent, I will be like those descending to the Pit. Repay them for what their hands have done; bring back on them what they deserve. Therefore my heart rejoices, and I give thanks to Him with my song.
A song for the dedication of the temple. Weeping may stay the night, but joy comes in the morning. When You hid Your face, I was dismayed. Will it proclaim Your faithfulness? Be my rock of refuge, the stronghold of my deliverance. I am dreaded by my friends— they flee when they see me on the street. I am like a broken vessel. They conspire against me and plot to take my life.
Let the wicked be put to shame; let them lie silent in Sheol. You conceal them in Your shelter from accusing tongues. The LORD preserves the faithful, but fully repays the arrogant. A Maskil. Selah 5 Then I acknowledged my sin to You and did not hide my iniquity. Selah 6 Therefore let all the godly pray to You while You may be found.
Surely when great waters rise, they will not come near. You protect me from trouble; You surround me with songs of deliverance. Selah 8 I will instruct you and teach you the way you should go; I will give you counsel and watch over you. Assailants I did not know slandered me without ceasing. Rescue my soul from their ravages, my precious life from these lions. Our eyes have seen! O Lord, be not far from me.