The Pantheon in Rome
The Pantheon is remarkable for its size, its construction, and its design. Until modern times, the dome was the largest built, measuring about feet (43 metres) in diameter and rising to a height of 71 feet (22 metres) above its base. Pantheon is a Greek word meaning "to honor all Gods." Dimensions of the Pantheon The giant dome that dominates the interior is meters or feet in diameter (for comparison, the White House dome is 96 feet in diameter). The Pantheon stood as the largest dome ever until Brunelleschi's dome at the Florence Cathedral of
Pantheonbuilding in Rome that was begun in 27 bc by the statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippaprobably as a building of the ordinary Classical temple type—rectangular with a gabled roof supported by a colonnade on all sides. It was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian sometime between ad andand some alterations were made in the early hhe century by the emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla. It is a circular building of concrete faced with brick, with a great concrete dome rising from the walls and with a front porch of Corinthian columns supporting a gabled roof with triangular pediment.
Beneath the porch are huge bronze double doors, 24 feet 7 metres high, the earliest known large examples of this type. The Pantheon is remarkable wjat its size, its construction, and its design. Until modern times, the dome was the largest built, measuring about feet 43 metres in diameter and rising to a height of 71 feet 22 metres above its base. There is no external evidence of brick arch support inside the dome, except in the lowest part, and the exact method of construction has never been determined.
Two factors, however, are known to have contributed to its success: the excellent quality of the mortar used in the concrete and the careful selection and grading of the aggregate material, which ranges from heavy basalt in the foundations of the building and the lower part of the walls, through brick and tufa a stone formed from volcanic dustto the lightest of pumice toward the centre of the vault.
In addition, the uppermost third of the drum of the walls, seen from the outside, coincides with the lower part of the dome, seen from what is rss feed in seo inside, and helps contain the thrust with internal brick arches.
The drum itself is strengthened by huge brick arches sre piers set above one another inside the walls, which are 20 feet 6 metres thick. In contrast to the what are the dimensions of the pantheon appearance of the outside, the interior of the building is lined with coloured marbleand the walls are marked by seven deep recesses, screened by pairs of columns whose modest pzntheon gives scale to the immensity of the rotunda.
Rectangular coffers, or indentations, were cut in the ceiling, probably under Severus, and decorated with bronze rosettes and molding. The bronze rosettes and moldings of the ceiling and other bronze embellishments have disappeared over time, and a frieze of stucco decoration was applied to the interior directly beneath the dome in the late Renaissance.
Otherwise, the building exists entirely in its original form. The structure has been an enduring source of inspiration to architects since the Renaissance. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Exterior of the Pantheon, begun 27 bcrebuilt c. How to fix ps3 red screen, Rome, begun by Agrippa in 27 bccompletely rebuilt by Hadrian c.
Britannica Quiz. The Roman Empire. In what year did the Roman Empire come to an end? How many hills was Rome built on? Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. It consists of a rotunda about feet 43 metres in diameter surrounded by concrete walls 20 feet 6 metres thick, in which are alternate circular and rectangular niches.
Light is admitted through a ov opening, or oculus, about 28 feet 8…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what wbat On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address.
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Apr 09, · The porch measures x metres and presents a front colonnade of eight Corinthian columns metres high. The monolithic column shafts are in Mons Claudianus and Aswan grey granite with the bases and capitals in white Pentelic solarigniters.com: Mark Cartwright.
The Pantheon stands as the most complete Roman structure on earth, having survived 20 centuries of plunder, pillage, and invasion. The original Pantheon was a rectangular temple built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus, the first Roman emperor, as part of a district renewal plan in BC. What tourists see as they relax in front in the Piazza della Rotonda is radically different than that original temple.
Hadrian rebuilt the structure; maker's stamps in the bricks allow us to peg his restoration between and AD. Still, the inscription on the architrave attributes the construction to Agrippa during his third councilship.
The portico in front of the Pantheon is what remains of Agrippa's original temple. The Pantheon contains the tombs of Rafael and of several Italian Kings. Pantheon is a Greek word meaning "to honor all Gods. The giant dome that dominates the interior is The Pantheon stood as the largest dome ever until Brunelleschi's dome at the Florence Cathedral of It's still the largest masonry dome in the world.
The Pantheon is made perfectly harmonious by the fact that the distance from the floor to the top of the dome is exactly equal to its diameter. Adytons shrines recessed into the wall and coffers sunken panels cleverly reduce the weight of the dome, as did a lightweight cement made of pumice used in the upper levels. The dome gets thinner as it approaches the oculus, the hole in the top of the dome used as a light source for the interior.
The thickness of the dome at that point is only 1. The oculus is 7. Yes, rain and snow occasionally fall through it, but the floor is slanted and drains cleverly remove the water if it manages to hit the floor. In practice, rain seldom falls inside the dome. The massive columns supporting the portico weigh 60 tons.
Each was 39 feet The columns were transported by wooden sledges to the Nile, barged to Alexandria, and put on vessels for a trip across the Mediterranean to the port of Ostia. From there the columns came up the Tiber by barge. Like many buildings in Rome , the Pantheon was saved from pillage by turning it into a church. Masses are held here on special occasions. The Pantheon has a website that details the most up-to-date information on opening hours and special events. Admission is free. One special event that you may enjoy if you visit Rome in the spring is the celebration of the Mass of Pentecost 50th day after Easter.
In a feature of the event, firemen climb to the top of the dome to drop rose petals from the oculus. If you get there early hours before the mass you may be able to find a few inches of floor space from which to observe this extremely popular event. The Piazza della Rotonda is a lively square filled with cafes, bars, and restaurants. In summer, visit the Pantheon interior in the day, preferably in the early morning before the tourist throngs, but return in the evening; the piazza in front is especially lively on warm summer nights when the Pantheon is lit from below and stands as an enormous reminder of the grandeur of ancient Rome.
The penny-pinching backpack crowd floods the steps of the fountain surrounding one of Rome's trophy obelisks, while tourists throng to the bars that edge the piazza. Drinks are expensive, as you might expect, but not outrageous, and you can nurse one for a long time without anyone bothering you, one of the simple delights of European life. The restaurants are mostly mediocre, but the view and atmosphere are unparalleled. To experience good solid Roman food at a good restaurant close by, try Armando al Pantheon, in a small alleyway to the right of the Pantheon as you're facing it.
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