The Basic Principles of Effectuation – How to Use What You Already Have to Become More Innovative
Aug 08, · Principle (noun): 1. a basic truth or theory; 2. an idea that forms the basis of something; 3. a law or fact of nature that explains how something works or why something happens. Fortunately, exercise science gives us five basic principles we can incorporate into a fitness program that will develop the changes, or “adaptations” we desire. Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials psychological and physical qualities for the effective exercise of their functions and receive continuous and thorough professional training. Their continued fitness to perform these functions should be subject to .
Text in PDF Format. Whereas the work of law enforcement officials 1 is a social service of great importance and there is, therefore, a need to maintain and, whenever necessary, to improve the working conditions and status how to redeem a club penguin membership card these officials. Whereas a threat to the life and safety of law enforcement officials must be seen as a threat to the stability of society as a whole.
Whereas law enforcement officials have a vital role in the protection of the right to life, liberty and security of the person, as guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Whereas the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners provide for the circumstances in which prison officials may use force in the course of their what are the basic principles of exercise. Whereas article 3 of the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials provides what are the basic principles of exercise law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty.
Whereas the preparatory meeting for the Seventh United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held at Varenna, Italy, agreed on elements to be considered in the course of further work on restraints on the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials. Whereas the Seventh Congress, in its resolution 14, inter aliaemphasizes that the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials should be commensurate with due respect for human rights.
Whereas it is appropriate that, with due regard to their personal safety, consideration be given to the role of law enforcement officials in relation to the administration of justice, to the protection of the right to life, liberty and security of the person, to their responsibility to maintain public safety and social peace and to the importance of their qualifications, training and conduct.
The basic principles set forth below, which have been formulated to assist Member States in their task of ensuring and promoting the proper role of law enforcement officials, should be taken into account and respected by Governments within the framework of their national legislation and practice, and be brought to the attention of law enforcement officials as well as other persons, such as judges, prosecutors, lawyers, members of the executive branch and how to partition a hard drive on mac legislature, and the public.
Governments and law enforcement agencies how to get rid of weevils in the kitchen adopt and implement rules and regulations on the use of force and firearms against persons by law enforcement officials. In developing such rules and regulations, Governments and law enforcement agencies shall keep the ethical issues associated with the use of force and firearms constantly under review. Governments and law enforcement agencies should develop a range of means as broad as possible and equip law enforcement officials with various types of weapons and ammunition that would allow for a differentiated use of force and firearms.
These should include the development of non-lethal incapacitating weapons for use in appropriate situations, with a view to increasingly restraining the application of means capable of causing death or injury to persons. For the same purpose, it should also be possible for law enforcement officials to be equipped with self-defensive equipment such as shields, helmets, bullet-proof vests and bullet-proof means of transportation, in order to decrease the need to auguri da inviare con whatsapp weapons of any kind.
The development and deployment of non-lethal incapacitating weapons should be carefully evaluated in order to minimize the risk of endangering uninvolved persons, and the use of such weapons should be carefully controlled.
Law enforcement officials, in carrying out their duty, shall, as far as possible, apply non-violent means before resorting to the use of force and firearms. They may use force and firearms only if other means remain ineffective or without any promise of achieving the intended result. Whenever the lawful use of force and firearms is unavoidable, law enforcement officials shall:. Where injury or death is caused by the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials, they shall report the incident promptly to their superiors, in accordance with principle Governments shall ensure that arbitrary or abusive use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials is punished as a criminal offence under their law.
Exceptional circumstances such as internal political instability or any other public emergency may not be invoked to justify any departure from these basic principles. Law enforcement officials shall not use firearms against persons except in self-defence or defence of others against the imminent threat of death or serious injury, to prevent the perpetration of a particularly serious crime involving grave threat to life, to arrest a person presenting such a danger and resisting their authority, or to prevent his or her escape, and only when less extreme means are insufficient to achieve these objectives.
In any event, intentional lethal use of firearms may only be made when strictly unavoidable in order to protect life. In the circumstances provided for under principle 9, law enforcement officials shall identify themselves as such and give a clear warning of their intent to use firearms, with sufficient time for the warning to be observed, unless to do so would unduly place the law enforcement officials at risk or would create a risk of death or serious harm to other persons, or would be clearly inappropriate or pointless in the circumstances of the incident.
Rules and regulations on the use of firearms by law enforcement officials should include guidelines that:. As everyone is allowed to participate in lawful and peaceful assemblies, in accordance with the principles embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Governments and law enforcement agencies and officials shall recognize that force and firearms may be used only in accordance with principles 13 and In the dispersal of assemblies that are unlawful but non-violent, law enforcement officials shall avoid the use of force or, where that is not practicable, shall restrict such force to the minimum extent necessary.
In the dispersal of violent assemblies, law enforcement officials may use firearms only when less dangerous means are not practicable and only to the minimum extent necessary.
Law enforcement officials shall not use firearms in such cases, except under the conditions stipulated in principle 9. Law enforcement officials, in their relations with persons in custody or detention, shall not use force, except when strictly necessary for the maintenance of security and order within the institution, or when personal safety is threatened.
Law enforcement officials, in their relations with persons in custody or detention, shall not use firearms, except in self-defence or in the defence of others against the immediate threat of death or serious injury, or when strictly necessary to prevent the escape of a person in custody or detention presenting the danger referred to in principle 9.
The preceding principles are without prejudice to the rights, duties and responsibilities of prison officials, as set out in the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, particularly rules 33, 34 and Governments and law enforcement agencies shall ensure that all law enforcement officials are selected by proper screening procedures, have appropriate moral, psychological and physical qualities how to make a liquid magnet the effective exercise of their functions and receive continuous and thorough professional training.
Their continued fitness to perform these functions should be subject to periodic review. Governments and law enforcement agencies shall ensure that all law enforcement officials are provided with training and are tested in accordance with appropriate proficiency standards in the use of force. Those law enforcement officials who are required to carry firearms should be authorized to do so only upon completion of special training in their use. In the training of pokemon black and white 2 how to evolve electabuzz enforcement officials, Governments and law enforcement agencies shall give special attention to issues of police ethics and human rights, especially how to become an evil villain the investigative process, to alternatives to the use of force and firearms, including the peaceful settlement of conflicts, the understanding of crowd behaviour, and the methods of persuasion, negotiation and mediation, as well as to technical means, with a view to limiting the use of force and firearms.
Law enforcement agencies should review their training programmes and operational procedures in the light of particular incidents. Governments and law enforcement agencies shall make stress counselling available to law enforcement officials who are involved in situations where force and firearms are used.
Governments and law enforcement what are the basic principles of exercise shall establish effective reporting and review procedures for all incidents referred to in principles 6 and 11 f. For incidents reported pursuant to these principles, Governments and law enforcement agencies shall ensure that an effective review process is available and that independent administrative or prosecutorial authorities are in a position to exercise jurisdiction in appropriate circumstances.
In cases of death and serious injury or other grave consequences, a detailed report shall be sent promptly to the competent authorities responsible for administrative review and judicial control. Persons affected by the use of force and firearms or their legal representatives shall have access to an independent process, including a judicial process. In the event of the death of such persons, this provision shall apply to their dependants accordingly.
Governments and law enforcement agencies shall ensure that superior officers are held responsible if they know, or should have known, that law enforcement officials under their command are resorting, or have resorted, to the unlawful use of force and firearms, and they did not take all measures in their power to prevent, suppress or report such use.
Governments and law enforcement agencies shall ensure that no criminal or disciplinary sanction is imposed on law enforcement officials who, in compliance with the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials and these basic principles, refuse to carry out an order to use force and firearms, or who report such use by other officials. Obedience to superior orders shall be no defence if law enforcement officials knew that an order to use force and firearms resulting in the death or serious injury of a person was manifestly unlawful and had a reasonable opportunity to refuse to follow it.
In any case, responsibility also rests on the superiors who gave the unlawful orders. The core international human rights instruments. Universal human rights instruments.
The International Bill of Human Rights. Turn on more accessible mode. Turn off more accessible mode. General provisions 1. Whenever the lawful use of force and firearms is unavoidable, law enforcement officials shall: a Exercise restraint in such use and act in proportion to the seriousness of the offence and the legitimate objective to be achieved; b Minimize damage and injury, and respect and preserve human life; c Ensure that assistance and medical aid are rendered to any injured or affected persons at the earliest possible moment; d Ensure that relatives or close friends of the injured or affected person are notified at the earliest possible moment.
Special provisions 9. Rules and regulations on the use of firearms by law enforcement officials should include guidelines that: a Specify the circumstances under which law enforcement officials are authorized to carry firearms and prescribe the types of firearms and ammunition permitted; b Ensure that firearms are used only in appropriate circumstances and in a manner likely to decrease the risk of unnecessary harm; c Prohibit the use of those firearms and ammunition that cause unwarranted injury or present an unwarranted risk; d Regulate the control, storage and issuing of firearms, including procedures for ensuring that law enforcement officials are accountable for the firearms and ammunition issued to them; e Provide for warnings to be given, if appropriate, when firearms are to be discharged; f Provide for a system of reporting whenever law enforcement officials use firearms in the performance of their duty.
Policing unlawful assemblies Policing persons in custody or detention Qualifications, training and counselling Reporting and review procedures See also.
These principles have been discovered, tested, and used in practical situations. They provide additional insight into what makes people learn most effectively. Edward Thorndike developed the first three "Laws of learning:" Readiness,Exercise and effect. 6 method of analysis that a court uses to interpret a statute, regulation or other rule of law, and may include the concept of precedent. Condition Precedent – an event that must happen before a contract or a contractual obligation goes into effect. Aug 18, · The two major branches of pharmacology are: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics - The study of the relationship between concentrations of drug and the biologic effects (physiological or biochemical) with time. In operational terms “what drugs do to the body”. For most drugs it is necessary to know the site of action and mechanism of action at the level of the organ.
In your role as a designer, coming up with creative and innovative designs and ideas that should have a positive impact on both users and business is part of the job description, whether you are employed, a student or an entrepreneur. When studying creativity and innovation , researchers have often turned to entrepreneurs to deduce how they get the next idea and achieve success. Here, you will learn the basic cognitive strategies that make top entrepreneurs successful and learn how you can implement them to become more innovative and action-oriented.
Author and associate professor in entrepreneurship Saras D. Sarasvathy has done extensive research on what makes successful entrepreneurs entrepreneurial—determining that they are innovative and action-oriented. With effectual reasoning , your starting point is that the future is unpredictable—so, rather than defining a specific plan to reach a specific goal, you focus on what means are available to you right now.
Here, we will teach you some basic strategies of effectual reasoning that you can easily apply to different types of creative projects, but first you need a more detailed understanding of what effectual reasoning is and how it differs from other types of reasoning. To study entrepreneurial thinking and problem solving, Sarasvathy interviewed 27 founders of highly successful companies in different industries.
She also gave the founders a case study with a product idea and asked them to solve 10 decision problems related to that idea. What her findings showed was that at the beginning of a project, where there are many uncertainties about the outcome and how to achieve it, the founders did not spend time defining a direct path to the end goal.
Instead, they started acting with whatever means were available to them and accepted that the end goal would change according to the outcome of their actions. This more or less chimes in with human nature, anyway—seldom can anyone sail through from the drawing board to the end result with the latter looking exactly how it had appeared as a concept in, say, an 18 th -floor conference room.
The future thus becomes like a curving corridor of possibilities and changing circumstances, but one that we help create. Sarasvathy calls the belief that the future is not predicted but created through our actions the Pilot in the Plane Principle. Sarasvathy mentions that effectual reasoning is the opposite of causal reasoning , which is taught at most business schools. Normally, we learn that we should have a detailed strategy with a clearly defined end goal and a clear description of the milestones we need to reach so as to get there.
The two types of reasoning have value for different types of projects:. In projects with a high degree of certainty, having a detailed strategy makes sense. The customer knows what the feature should do; she knows who the target group is, and you have previously designed something similar in other apps. In this type of project, you would be best off using causal reasoning and creating a detailed strategy for what you should do and when it needs to be done. A lot of projects have a high degree of uncertainty.
You might be asked to design a new app with the main requirement that it is successful for a specific target group; you might be asked to come up with an idea for a new feature that will increase the number of downloads of an app, or you might be looking for the next good idea for a new business or project—without having a clear idea of what it should be.
In those situations, making a very specific plan with clear milestones and a clear goal will prove difficult. Creating a specific strategy will require a lot of research, and—even with research—you might learn something along the way that could change the focus of the project completely. This is where effectual reasoning can be an advantage. Rather than trying to define a goal and how to end up there, you start by looking at what resources are available to you right now and how you can use them to get started working on the project.
As you work and learn, you should change the course of your project depending on what opportunities arise. Sarasvathy describes three resources or means that are available to everyone that you can use as a starting point:. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY 2. According to the Bird in Hand Principle, you should focus on what means are readily available to you rather than on where you want to end up. We have established that in projects with a high degree of uncertainty you should start acting based on the means readily available to you, rather than spending a long period strategizing.
That said, we have not yet addressed how you go about that, if you are unsure of your competencies or if you are not used to acting according to effectual reasoning. If you want to get a clearer idea of what means are available to you, you can start by taking a closer look at who you are, what you know and who you know. Who I am relates to your identity: your values, attributes and abilities. This is not what we usually think about when we consider our means in a professional setting.
Nonetheless, obviously, your identity has a big influence on your work, and it also overlaps with your more professional competencies. As Sarasvathy says, who you are is one of your unique competitive advantages, because no one else is exactly like you. Multiple studies have shown that one of the primary factors in whether we enjoy our work is that we consider it meaningful see, e. That is, we know we enjoy what we do for a living if it corresponds with our values. If you are a person who values beauty and aesthetics , you will be motivated and efficient when working on a project where the look and feel of a product is important.
If you place a high value on taking care of the environment, you will be more efficient and happier working on a green energy project than for an oil company. If you have an outgoing personality and the ability to connect well with others, you will obviously be able to use that to your advantage in projects that require contact with a lot of people or where you need to motivate others. We do not always have a clear overview of our identities, but mapping out our values and attributes can help you use your strengths in new projects.
That your personality influences your work and what you are good at is obvious, but many of us do not have a clear overview of exactly what our values are or what personal attributes we can use in a work setting. If you want to discover new opportunities for innovation and creativity mapping your values can help. This mapping will help you choose a direction for new projects or maybe change direction in current projects.
You might be surprised to discover values you did not realise were important to you. You can download and print our Value Map Exercise template to help get started with using the method:.
Defining what you know is somewhat more straightforward than defining who you are, in so far as it relates to your professional competencies. If you reflect on your education, professional training and the types of tools and projects you have worked on previously, you should get a pretty comprehensive list of what you know.
If you are looking for new opportunities, creating a list of your professional competencies can be a good way to remind yourself of skills that you no longer use that might be relevant for new projects. Examples of more intangible competencies could be that you are good at making decisions or that you are good at empathising with users.
Some of these competencies you are probably aware of, but others might be easier for other people to recognise as being qualities that are present within you. Getting distance on ourselves is often too hard a task for most of us to find all aspects of ourselves and objectively so. So, having others help you map out your competencies can show you competencies that you were not previously aware of, and it can help you discover new opportunities.
You can use this competence mapping exercise:. For this exercise you need to gather people who can help tell you. You should all have a pen and Post-its. One person interviews you; the other people observe and take notes. When you are interviewed, think of a success story: some smaller or larger project that you felt was a success at work, your studies, as an entrepreneur, etc. Tell the others very concretely what happened and what you did. The person interviewing helps by asking follow-up questions during the story:.
Participants who are observing note down all the competencies and personal qualifications they hear in your story: 1 Post-it for each qualification. These can be personal as well as professional competencies: e. After the interview, you do a shared reflection. Since you are all gathered, you can return the favour and take turns interviewing each other.
After the session, do your own individual reflection. Think about whether some of the competencies surprised you. How might you use those in a project? Choose 3 competencies, and describe how you can put them to use in a project you are working on, in a way that is different from what you are doing now.
You can download and print our Competence Mapping Exercise template to help get started with using the method. Whom I know refers to the people in your network. According to Sarasvathy, you should think of the people you know as one of your means and create new opportunities by collaborating with people in your network. Other people can contribute with means that are not available to you, either because of who they are, what they know or whom they know.
According to effectual reasoning, you should not just sell your own vision of an idea or problem to people who might be able to help you with your project. This will help create more committed collaborations where each person is personally invested in the project. It also means that the project will change whenever someone new becomes involved. You should be open to changing the direction of your project when you start collaborating with people in your network. As with values and competencies, mapping out your network can help if you are in doubt of who might be relevant to involve in a project or if you cannot think of someone with whom to collaborate.
Here, you might need to think outside your working environment. You can do this network mapping exercise:. Write down the names of people in your network who might be able to help you in a current or future project. Start with the inner circle and move outwards. When you have described the network, choose the 3 most relevant people whom you would like to contact. Think about what you would like to ask them and why their being contacted by you is beneficial.
You can download and print our Network Mapping Exercise template to help get started with using the method. When you are faced with a difficult creative problem, or if you want to become more innovative, you should stop planning and start acting with whatever means are available to you. Using the Bird in Hand principle, think about what resources are available to you because of who you are, what you know and the people you know, and take a means-driven rather than a goal-driven approach.
If you find getting started difficult or you feel that you need to discover new opportunities, taking a closer look at what means are actually available to you—by mapping out your values, competencies and network—will certainly help. Saras D. Sarasvathy What Makes Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurial? Darden Business Publishing.
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