The Rise of the Roman Empire
The Rise of Rome. They themselves say that their founders were brought up by the milk of a she-wolf; just so that the entire race as hearts of wolves, insatiable of blood, and ever greedy and lusting after power and riches. Ц Mithridates of Pontus on the Romans (Justin ). The Roman Empire came to power as a result of social chaos and civil war, which began with the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. For the next 14 See full answer below. Become a .
They themselves say that their founders were brought up by the milk of a she-wolf; just so that the entire race as hearts of wolves, insatiable of blood, and ever greedy and lusting after power and riches.
Rome was just one of many city-states of the Latin people located in modern day central Italy and, in how to play xbox one games offline ways, was not dissimilar to the fractured civilization of the Greeks.
The Latin peoples fought amongst themselves just as the Greeks had done. The How did the roman empire rise to power used hoplites and phalanx tactics in battle similar to the Romans during their time in the early republic. Rome, being the largest and most powerful of these city-states, could even be argued as the Latin version of the Greek polis Athens.
So how did a group of people heavily reliant on farming and agriculture and at constant odds with each other manage to carve out one of the largest and glorious empires in the history of man? Rome, unlike their Greek counterparts, was able to subjugate her rival city-states by the late 4th century BC and united them under the single banner of the city of Rome.
At this time the culture of Rome when it came to warfare changed and she adopted a radical policy of expansionism that eventually set her at odds with other civilizations on the Apennine Peninsula, such as the Etruscans, Samnites and other smaller mountain tribes. It is unclear exactly why Rome did not make attempts to peacefully coexist with her neighbors or even how the poor agricultural masses just accepted the policy of compulsory military service dictated by their aristocratic senate.
Regardless of the source of this expansionist policy, the Romans threw themselves into a series of wars with their Etruscan and Samnite neighbors spanning from the late fourth to early third centuries BC.
By the conclusion of the Third Samnite War in the Early 3rd century BC, the Romans had done away with the old phalanx and hoplite style of warfare and had adopted the Manipular formation methods believed borrowed from their Samnite foes ; transforming Rome into a sophisticated and powerful fighting force using complex tactics requiring unimaginable military discipline. After finally overcoming the Samnites and Etruscans the Romans found themselves in possession of most of modern day Italy, however, the Romans had no intention of stopping there.
The Romans then turned their eyes to new conquests and campaigns. Campaigns that would take them through modern day France and Germany fighting the Gallic tribes. Conquests that finally united the Greek city states, under the banner how to calculate mean in calculator Rome.
In this web presentation, we hope to explain and explore how how to rent a car in london Roman military machine was able to conquer and subjugate such a large area of the world encompassed by many different groups of people and methods of fighting with such unparalleled success.
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A brief history of the world's greatest empire
The Roman military was actually a boost to the economy, they brought back enormous amounts of wealth by plunder. The British Empire also used this type of economy, by way of colonies. The military was one of the greatest virtues of the roman empire, there was no way it could have risen without such power. How Did The Roman Empire Rise? The rise of the Roman Empire began in the year B.C. and stopped altogether on 4 September , with the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Legend has it that Romulus killed his twin brother Remus and became the Rome's first king in BC. Aug 20, †Ј After years as a republic, Rome became an empire in the wake of Julius CaesarТs rise and fall in the first century B.C.
The rise of the Roman Empire took place over many centuries and included many ups and downs. This article takes the story of Rome from the foundation of the city of Rome in the 8th century BCE right up to the reign of the first emperor, Augustus, in the first century BCE.
An overview of the entire history of the Roman Empire, from origins to the fall of the Western Empire, can be found in the article the Roman Empire. For more on the society and culture of ancient Rome, go to the article on the Civilization of Ancient Rome.
This was a period of cultural change, when the simple way of life of the peoples of central Italy was beginning to be affected by new influences from the eastern Mediterranean. In central Italy there is a plain on the west coast called Latium , which takes its name from the Latin people who lived there in the first millennium BC. They had come down into Italy from the north, like other Italic peoples, and had settled in small villages of thatched huts, sometime in the second millennium.
In the eighth century BC their rural way of life began to be effected by influences coming in from outside. Greek colonies were established in the plain of Campania, just south of Latium, and they introduced a new way of life based on towns and trade.
Within a century or so of their coming they had also brought such innovations as the alphabet and coinage to the Italian peoples amongst whom they lived and traded. Meanwhile, to the north of the Latins another civilization arose, that of the Etruscans. They developed an advanced material culture which, like that of the Greeks, owed a great deal to contacts with the eastern Mediterranean and Near East.
They too lived in towns and cities rather than in small villages, and developed a sophisticated urban culture. They had close commercial contacts with Greeks, Carthaginians and other civilized peoples of the region. The Latins could not but help feel the influences radiating from north and south, and slowly they merged their farming villages into urban settlements.
Many of them came under the political domination of Etruscan lords. One such community affected by these changes was that of the Romans. They originally inhabited a cluster of villages on a group of hills in northern Latium, at a well-trodden crossing pint of the river Tiber. The Romans were not in fact typical of the usual Latin communities, in that from an early date they seem to have been a mix of Latins and Sabines, a more pastoral people who lived in the hills east of Latium.
Sometime in the centuries after BC these farmers merged their villages together to form a city-state; and very soon their location at a strategic crossing point on the river Tiber, twelve miles or so from its mouth, attracted the attention of their powerful Etruscan neighbours to the north.
Etruscan lords came down and took control of the city, probably shortly after BC, and gave the city a line of kings. These Kings, the Tarquinii who, according to legend, were descended from the kings of Corinth in Greece embellished the city with walls, a central forum public square , an efficient drainage system, a wooden bridge across the Tiber, and temples Ч all the accoutrements, in fact, of a city-state of the ancient Mediterranean. By the time of the later Tarquin kings, another Greek innovation was spreading through Italy Ч republicanism.
Around BC the Etruscan kings were expelled and in their place the Patricians , the heads of the leading clans in Rome, chose consuls from amongst their own numbers. The early history of the Roman Republic was one of fierce external pressure accompanied by sharp internal tensions.
With the expulsion of the last king, Tarquin the Proud, the Romans immediately found themselves fighting for their lives. Tarquin and his Etruscan allies organized a co-ordinated attack on them, and hill-tribes such as the Sabines and Volsci raided their territory.
The Romans beat off these attacks, but from now on they were continually at war with their neighbours Ч Latin, Sabine, Volscian and Etruscan. Published by Guillaume Rouille. What made matters worse was that there were grave tensions within the Roman community itself, of precisely the kind that we meet with in Greek city-states.
As the traditions recorded by later Roman historians have it, the mass of the people, the Plebeians , resented the way in which the Patricians , the small group of leading families, ruled. The former felt that the latter were, through their dominance of the law courts, interpreting customs to their own advantage, allowing them powerful, Patrician and wealthy to act towards their debtors poor, Plebeian and powerless in a harsh and arbitrary way.
Unlike in many Greek states, however, the Plebeians did not call for a re-distribution of land, nor did they violently attack the Patricians and try to seize power. They did this for several years running before the Patricians, realizing that something had to give, agreed to set out the laws in a written form.
A commission of both plebeians and patricians duly produced twelve tables of laws to be set up in public in the forum c. These twelve tables set out a fairly harsh code of law, but Romans of all stripes felt it was fair, and they won the support of the community as a whole. The orginal Twelve Tables formed the basis of all subsequent Roman law , possibly the greatest distinctive contribution to future history that the Romans made. Rome gradually prevailed over her Latin neighbours, and became recognized as the leading city-state within Latium.
At one stroke Roman territory almost doubled in size. The Romans settled their own citizens on the land that had belonged to the enemy. This put her in an even stronger position with her neighbours. Then disaster struck. A powerful raiding party of Gauls , coming down the Italian peninsula from northern Italy, defeated the Roman army and burnt the city, narrowly failing to take the Citadel and destroy the city altogether c.
It took many years for Rome to regain her leading position within Latium. Tensions between Patricians and Plebeians continued, gradually taking on a different character. Some plebeians had, over the years, become wealthy landowners, and they were becoming increasingly resentful about having no share in the leadership of the state. These rich plebeians used the massed power of their poorer fellows not only to guarantee the rights of the Plebeians, but also to gain access to high office for themselves.
The office had wide-ranging powers to act against abuses of power by other magistrates. They also won seats in the senate , the ruling council of Rome; and finally, they won the right to be elected consul , or chief magistrate of Rome two of these being elected each year to act as joint chiefs of state.
From this time forward, the leading Plebeian families gradually merged with those of the Patricians to form a single ruling class of Rome, and the tension between the Patrician and Plebeian orders faded though it by no means vanished.
The comparatively successful resolution of this conflict gave Roman society a stability and cohesion that stood it in good stead for the next century and a half.
Having overcome severe early challenges and set-backs, the Romans went on to defeat many tough enemies to conquer Italy. They did this not only by dogged determination in war, but also by judicious and far-sighted treatment of beaten opponents.
Other leading cities in Latium, such as Praeneste and Tibur, used the Gallic disaster to gain leadership of the Latin cities for themselves.
Over about a generation, however, the Romans regained their strength. In BC they conquered the neighbouring city of Tusculum.
The Samnites, a confederation of hill tribes in southern central Italy, were pressing in on the cities in the fertile coastal plain of Campania, to the south of Latium. The Campanians appealed to Rome for help, and reluctantly, realising that a Samnite takeover of this productive area of Italy was not in their interests, the Romans agreed to do so.
The Romans were victorious against the Samnites in battle in the First Samnite War , but a more immediate danger to Rome was becoming apparent: the Latin cities were planning to turn on Rome, supported by the Campanian cities whom the Romans were helping who had clearly come to feel, with the Latins, that Rome was becoming rather too powerful.
The Romans hurriedly made peace with the Samnites, and almost immediately found themselves at war with the Latin and Campanian cities. In the following war BC the Latins and Campanians were defeated. The Romans then tried a similar peace formula to the one which they had concluded with Tusculum, forty years before. They incorporated the smaller cities nearest to Rome into their state, giving their inhabitants full Roman citizenship and giving their leading families the opportunity to become Roman equestrians and senators.
These measures Ч together with the establishment of a number of small colonies of Roman citizens at strategic locations throughout Latium and Campania Ч bound the people of Latium and Campania together in a network of shared interests under firm Roman leadership. The arrangements proved enduring, and, with rare exceptions, the Latins and Campanians remained staunch allies of Rome for the next three centuries.
Rome was now able to call on a large pool of military manpower, which she was to need over the next few decades. As we have seen, her new allies in the fertile coastal plain of Campania had been coming under pressure from the hill tribes of the interior, the Samnites and their allies. These had a reputation as tough fighters.
The Romans were obliged to come to the assistance of their allies and had to endure long years of warfare in the hills and mountains of central and southern Italy BC. They experienced some disastrous defeats, but eventually they were able to prevail. Whilst dealing with these difficult foes they also secured their rear in the north by subduing the Etruscan cities. In the course of these long and difficult wars, the Romans introduced major changes in the way their military forces were organised.
It was now that those distinctive Roman formations, the legion and the century and that famous figure, the Roman centurion , emerged. In victory the Romans again used a modified version of the measures they had adopted with the Latins and Campanians in In this case, however, there was no great extension of either Roman or Latin citizenship; this was not appropriate given the variety of communities brought under their sway and indeed, one of the secrets of this policy was not to be too generous with Roman or Latin citizenship, and so devalue it.
Instead, the Etruscan city-states, Samnite hill tribes and others were made allies of Rome. These were called Latin colonies, and acted as a formidable bulwark to Roman power in potentially hostile territory, as well as a channel via which Roman law and customs, as well as the Latin language, were transmitted throughout the Italian peoples.
A network of roads was built along which troops could be hurried to if needed. All states had their place, their own individual relationship to the leading city; and, as time was to prove, the system was to prove a resilient and enduring one.
Her Allies provided Rome with the manpower to defend herself and her allies against new formidable opponents and extend her sway. The next opponent was indeed formidable. The Greek cities of southern Italy, alarmed at the growing power of Rome, called Pyrrhus , king of the northern Greek kingdom of Epirus reigned BC , to come to their aid and safeguard their independence BC. Pyrrhus was one of the most famous Greek generals since Alexander the Great.
He answered the call, and with one of the finest armies of the time which, incidentally, included 20 elephants , he defeated the Romans in a number of battles. The cost to his army, however, was so great, and their manpower so apparently inexhaustible, that he came to realize that he could never overcome them. This they duly did. After her conquest of Italy , Rome faced two great wars with the international maritime power of Carthage. She now encountered the most formidable foe in her history.
Carthage was at this time the leading maritime power in the western Mediterranean. She was determined to keep this position, so when tensions arose in Sicily which drew the Romans in a clash between the two powers became inevitable. Carthage started by dominating the seas around Italy. Whilst this situation lasted, Rome could do little to get at her enemy. So she built a large fleet and armed her warships with a new device, a bridge with a hook on it to grappling an enemy ship and allow the Roman soldiers to stream across and attack at close quarters.
After a series of discouraging defeats the Romans at last began to win victories at sea, and so eventually gained the upper hand. At length the Carthaginians came to terms. To replace their lost overseas territories, the Carthaginians built up their power in Spain, making a network of alliances with the local tribes there. This was to a great extent the work of one of their leading families, the Barcids.
As chance would have it, this family produced a commander whom historians have ever since regarded as one of the greatest generals in history. His name was Hannibal.